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  • some courses in syntax

    Phrase Structure Rules
    and Phrase Structure
    Trees
    Quick Review:
    There are words
    Some words can’t both appear together:
    *the some hats
    Some words seem to occupy the same
    position in a sentence:
    Sarah likes pizza! ! Matt hates hamburgers
    These words are the same syntactic
    category, which can be proven with
    distribution tests
    Some words seem to belong together:
    The crazy instructor is a tree-hugging vegetarian
    Groups of words that belong together are called
    constituents, and can be proven by constituency
    tests: Substitution, Movement, Short Answer,
    Coordination
    There are problems with the constituency tests,
    but these tell us where our theory needs work!
    When you run into a problem, you need to think
    “outside of the box”
    When you run into a problem, you need to think
    “outside of the box”
    The Box
    You
    Draw four lines, and have
    them go through every dot,
    without taking ‘your pencil’
    off of ‘the paper’.
    The lines have to go
    outside of the box
    Each constituent seems to behave like one of its
    components: the red mat = it
    The component that determines the properties of
    the constituent is the head, and the constituent
    can be referred to as a phrase: e.g. noun phrase
    If we look at phrases, some patterns emerge:
    D N
    the instructor! ! ! = NP
    D N
    a friend! ! ! ! ! ! = NP
    D N
    some homework! ! = NP
    D N
    two classes! ! ! ! = NP
    some more patterns:
    V D N
    call the instructor!! ! = VP
    V D N
    meet a friend! ! ! ! ! = VP
    V D N
    do some homework!! ! = VP
    V D N
    skip two classes! ! ! ! = VP
    and yet more patterns:
    P D N
    with the instructor! ! = PP
    P D N
    from a friend! ! ! ! ! = PP
    P D N
    with some homework! = PP
    P D N
    after two classes! ! ! = PP
    So what’s the point?
    Phrase Structure Rules = rules for determining
    the structure of phrases
    D N! ! ! ! ! D!! N!! ! ! ! ! D!! ! ! N
    the linguist! ! ! a friend! ! ! some homework
    “noun phrases always have a D and an N”
    NP -> D N
    P! ! D N!! ! ! ! ! P!! D!! N!! ! ! !
    with the linguist!! ! from a friend! ! !
    “prepositional phrases always have a P and an NP”
    PP -> P NP
    V D N!! ! ! ! V! D! ! N!! ! V D N
    run a marathon! ! eat the food!! ! read the book
    V P D N V P D N
    go to the store! talk with a teacher
    V D N P D N
    take your sister to the library
    “Verb phrases have a V, (sometimes) an NP, and
    (sometimes) a PP”
    VP -> V (NP) (PP)
    Phrase Structure Rules can be represented
    visually as trees:
    NP -> D N
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! NP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! D N
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! the book
    Phrase Structure Rules can be represented
    visually as trees:
    PP -> P NP! ! ! ! PP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! NP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! P D N
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! from!the book
    Phrase Structure Rules can be represented
    visually as trees:
    VP -> V NP! ! ! ! VP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! NP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! V D N
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! read! the book
    Phrase Structure Rules can be represented
    visually as trees:
    VP -> V PP!! ! ! !
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! VP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! PP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! NP
    ! ! ! ! ! V!! ! P D N
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
    ! ! ! ! read! from!the book
    So now we just need a list of Phrase Structure
    Rules:
    D Mod A N P N! ! ! =NP!
    my very lazy friend in LA
    NP -> (D) (AP*) N (PP*)
    why (D) = ! LA must be an NP as well as an N to
    ! ! ! ! ! ! be in the PP [in LA]
    why (AP*) = my rich handsome lazy friend
    why (PP*) = my friend in LA with the convertible
    * = as many as you want
    Mod A =AP!
    very lazy
    AP -> (Mod) A (PP)
    why (Mod) = !lazy
    why (PP) = proud of himself
    Mod P N =PP!
    (right) in LA
    PP -> (Mod) P (NP)
    why (NP) = i’m going there
    NP -> (D) (AP*) N (PP*)
    AP -> (Mod) A (PP)
    PP -> (Mod) P (NP)
    Rules thus far:
    ! ! ! ! !
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
    my very lazy friend in LA
    NP -> (D) (AP*) N (PP*)
    AP -> (Mod) A (PP)
    PP -> (Mod) P (NP)
    Rules thus far:
    ! ! ! ! !
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
    D! mod! A!! ! N!! ! P N
    my very lazy friend in LA
    NP -> (D) (AP*) N (PP*)
    AP -> (Mod) A (PP)
    PP -> (Mod) P (NP)
    Rules thus far:
    ! ! ! ! !
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! NP! ! ! !
    D! mod! A!! ! N!! ! P N
    my very lazy friend in LA
    NP -> (D) (AP*) N (PP*)
    AP -> (Mod) A (PP)
    PP -> (Mod) P (NP)
    Rules thus far:
    ! ! ! ! !
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! PP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! NP! ! ! !
    D! mod! A!! ! N!! ! P N
    my very lazy friend in LA
    NP -> (D) (AP*) N (PP*)
    AP -> (Mod) A (PP)
    PP -> (Mod) P (NP)
    Rules thus far:
    ! ! ! ! !
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! PP
    ! ! ! ! AP! ! ! ! NP! ! ! !
    D! mod! A!! ! N!! ! P N
    my very lazy friend in LA
    NP -> (D) (AP*) N (PP*)
    AP -> (Mod) A (PP)
    PP -> (Mod) P (NP)
    Rules thus far:
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! NP! ! !
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! PP
    ! ! ! ! AP! ! ! ! NP! ! ! !
    D! mod! A!! ! N!! ! P N
    my very lazy friend in LA
    ! ! ! ! ! NP
    Aux V P D N Adv
    My very lazy friend in LA will go to the beach tomorrow
    Adv! ! ! = AdvP
    tomorrow
    AdvP -> (Mod) Adv (PP)
    why (Mod) = very infrequently
    why (PP) = I wrote the book independently of him
    V P! D! ! N!! ! Adv!! ! ! = VP
    go to the beach tomorrow
    VP -> (AdvP) V (NP) (NP) (PP*) (AdvP*)
    why (AdvP) = probably go to the beach
    why (NP) (NP) = give me five dollars
    why (PP*) = go to the beach in his convertible
    why (AdvP*) = go to the beach briefly tomorrow
    NP -> (D) (AP*) N (PP*) AP -> (Mod) A (PP)
    PP -> (Mod) P (NP)
    Rules thus far:
    AdvP -> (Mod) Adv (PP)
    VP -> (AdvP) V (NP) (NP) (PP*) (AdvP*)
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
    V P D N Adv
    go to the beach tomorrow
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! AdvP! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
    V P D N Adv
    go to the beach tomorrow
    NP -> (D) (AP*) N (PP*) AP -> (Mod) A (PP)
    PP -> (Mod) P (NP)
    Rules thus far:
    AdvP -> (Mod) Adv (PP)
    VP -> (AdvP) V (NP) (NP) (PP*) (AdvP*)
    ! ! ! ! NP!! !AdvP! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
    V P D N Adv
    go to the beach tomorrow
    NP -> (D) (AP*) N (PP*) AP -> (Mod) A (PP)
    PP -> (Mod) P (NP)
    Rules thus far:
    AdvP -> (Mod) Adv (PP)
    VP -> (AdvP) V (NP) (NP) (PP*) (AdvP*)
    NP -> (D) (AP*) N (PP*) AP -> (Mod) A (PP)
    PP -> (Mod) P (NP)
    Rules thus far:
    AdvP -> (Mod) Adv (PP)
    VP -> (AdvP) V (NP) (NP) (PP*) (AdvP*)
    ! PP
    ! ! ! ! NP!! !AdvP! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
    V P D N Adv
    go to the beach tomorrow
    NP -> (D) (AP*) N (PP*) AP -> (Mod) A (PP)
    PP -> (Mod) P (NP)
    Rules thus far:
    AdvP -> (Mod) Adv (PP)
    VP -> (AdvP) V (NP) (NP) (PP*) (AdvP*)
    VP
    ! PP
    ! ! ! ! NP!! !AdvP! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
    V P D N Adv
    go to the beach tomorrow
    Now we just need to put the NP and VP together
    with the Aux:
    S -> NP (Aux) VP
    why (Aux):!John (has) left
    S -> NP (Aux) VP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! S
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! NP! ! ! ! ! ! VP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! PP!! ! ! ! PP
    !!
    ! ! ! ! AP!! ! ! ! NP! ! ! ! ! ! NP! AdvP
    ! D Mod A N! P N Aux V P D N Adv
    my very lazy friend in LA will go to the beach tomorrow
    First: Label the categories
    ! D Mod A N! P N Aux V P D N Adv
    my very lazy friend in LA will go to the beach tomorrow
    Second: Look for single words that form phrases
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! NP! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! AdvP
    ! D Mod A N! P N Aux V P D N Adv
    my very lazy friend in LA will go to the beach tomorrow
    Third: Look for any complete NPs
    NP -> (D) (AP*) (PP*)
    HINT: For clear trees, draw the NP directly over the N
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! NP! ! ! ! ! ! NP! AdvP
    ! D Mod A N! P N Aux V P D N Adv
    my very lazy friend in LA will go to the beach tomorrow
    Fourth: Look for any complete APs
    AP -> (Mod) A (PP)
    HINT: For clear trees, draw the phrase label directly over
    the head (e.g. NP directly over N)
    ! ! ! ! ! AP!! ! ! ! NP! ! ! ! ! ! NP! AdvP
    ! D Mod A N! P N Aux V P D N Adv
    my very lazy friend in LA will go to the beach tomorrow
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! PP!! ! ! ! PP
    !!
    ! ! ! ! AP!! ! ! ! NP! ! ! ! ! ! NP! AdvP
    ! D Mod A N! P N Aux V P D N Adv
    my very lazy friend in LA will go to the beach tomorrow
    Fifth: Look for any complete PPs
    PP -> (Mod) P (NP)
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! NP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! PP!! ! ! ! PP
    !!
    ! ! ! ! AP!! ! ! ! NP! ! ! ! ! ! NP! AdvP
    ! D Mod A N! P N Aux V P D N Adv
    my very lazy friend in LA will go to the beach tomorrow
    Sixth: Look for any NPs or APs that have become
    complete (because PPs could be part of them)
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! NP! ! ! ! ! ! VP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! PP!! ! ! ! PP
    !!
    ! ! ! ! AP!! ! ! ! NP! ! ! ! ! ! NP! AdvP
    ! D Mod A N! P N Aux V P D N Adv
    my very lazy friend in LA will go to the beach tomorrow
    Sixth: Look for any VPs
    VP -> (AdvP) V (NP) (NP) (PP*) (AdvP*)
    Next: Look for any other phrases that need to be
    completed (in general, start with NPs and PPs, as they
    form the basis for most phrases)
    There are no more for this tree.... just S.
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! NP! ! ! ! ! ! VP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! PP!! ! ! ! PP
    !!
    ! ! ! ! AP!! ! ! ! NP! ! ! ! ! ! NP! AdvP
    ! D Mod A N! P N Aux V P D N Adv
    my very lazy friend in LA will go to the beach tomorrow
    Finally, when all phrases are done, it’s time for S:
    S -> NP (Aux) VP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! S
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! NP! ! ! ! ! ! VP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! PP!! ! ! ! PP
    !!
    ! ! ! ! AP!! ! ! ! NP! ! ! ! ! ! NP! AdvP
    ! D Mod A N! P N Aux V P D N Adv
    my very lazy friend in LA will go to the beach tomorrow
    Do you love the trees?
    But what is the point?
    But what is the point?
    Sentences are not 1 dimensional:
    But what is the point?
    Sentences are not 1 dimensional:
    Sentences are 2 dimensional:
    There is more to the structure of a sentence than
    just the order of the words (PS - that should blow
    your mind)
    Words are arranged into a hierarchy... that is,
    sentences are hierarchical, or have hierarchical
    structure.
    But who cares?
    Nim Chimpsky does!
    Hierarchical Structure (or more precisely Phrase
    Structure) is what enables human language to be
    infinite:
    Clare thinks John ate dinner
    Ellen thinks Clare thinks John ate dinner
    ...
    Once S is part of VP, it can extend forever:
    S -> NP (Aux)! VP
    ! ! Ellen! ! ! VP -> V S
    ! ! ! ! ! ! thinks! ! S -> NP (Aux) VP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Clare! ! VP -> V S
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! thinks! ...! !
    We call this recursion: a function is said to be recursive if it
    uses itself as part of its definition.
    In this case, the function is ‘building an S’, which uses S as
    part of its definition.
    Of course, because there is a VP definition without S (VP ->
    V for instance), not all sentences go on forever.
    ! ! ! ! S
    ! ! ! ! VP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! S
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! VP
    NP! ! ! ! ! NP!! ! ! NP
    N V N V N
    Clare thinks John ate dinner.
    Connecting S to V requires
    a new rule:
    VP -> V S
    So, hierarchical structure is important (and thus
    trees are important) because they make language
    recursive.
    Rules thus far:
    PP -> (Mod) P (NP)! ! ! AdvP -> (Mod) Adv (PP)
    AP -> (Mod) A (PP)! ! ! NP -> (D) (AP*) N (PP*)
    VP -> (AdvP) V (NP) (NP) (PP*) (AdvP*)
    Your fat cat on my red mat will jump under that dirty table soon
    Rules thus far:
    PP -> (Mod) P (NP)! ! ! AdvP -> (Mod) Adv (PP)
    AP -> (Mod) A (PP)! ! ! NP -> (D) (AP*) N (PP*)
    VP -> (AdvP) V (NP) (NP) (PP*) (AdvP*)
    D A N P D A N Aux V P D A N Adv
    Your fat cat on my red mat will jump under that dirty table soon
    Rules thus far:
    PP -> (Mod) P (NP)! ! ! AdvP -> (Mod) Adv (PP)
    AP -> (Mod) A (PP)! ! ! NP -> (D) (AP*) N (PP*)
    VP -> (AdvP) V (NP) (NP) (PP*) (AdvP*)
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! AdvP
    D A N P D A N Aux V P D A N Adv
    Your fat cat on my red mat will jump under that dirty table soon
    Rules thus far:
    PP -> (Mod) P (NP)! ! ! AdvP -> (Mod) Adv (PP)
    AP -> (Mod) A (PP)! ! ! NP -> (D) (AP*) N (PP*)
    VP -> (AdvP) V (NP) (NP) (PP*) (AdvP*)
    ! ! AP! ! ! ! ! AP! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! AP! ! AdvP
    D A N P D A N Aux V P D A N Adv
    Your fat cat on my red mat will jump under that dirty table soon
    Rules thus far:
    PP -> (Mod) P (NP)! ! ! AdvP -> (Mod) Adv (PP)
    AP -> (Mod) A (PP)! ! ! NP -> (D) (AP*) N (PP*)
    VP -> (AdvP) V (NP) (NP) (PP*) (AdvP*)
    ! ! ! !! ! ! ! ! ! NP! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! NP
    ! ! ! !
    ! ! AP! ! ! ! ! AP! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! AP! ! AdvP
    D A N P D A N Aux V P D A N Adv
    Your fat cat on my red mat will jump under that dirty table soon
    Rules thus far:
    PP -> (Mod) P (NP)! ! ! AdvP -> (Mod) Adv (PP)
    AP -> (Mod) A (PP)! ! ! NP -> (D) (AP*) N (PP*)
    VP -> (AdvP) V (NP) (NP) (PP*) (AdvP*)
    ! ! ! !! ! ! ! ! ! NP! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! NP
    ! ! ! !
    ! ! AP! ! ! ! ! AP! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! AP! ! AdvP
    D A N P D A N Aux V P D A N Adv
    Your fat cat on my red mat will jump under that dirty table soon
    Why not complete this NP?
    Your fat cat on my red mat will jump ... soon
    *it on my red mat will jump ... soon
    Your fat cat on my red mat will jump ... soon
    it will jump ... soon
    SO: your fat cat on my red mat is the constituent
    New Definitions:
    Constituent: the set of all nodes that are
    dominated by a single node
    Node: the beginning or end of a branch, usually has
    a label
    Label: NP, VP, PP, AP, AdvP, etc...
    Rules thus far:
    PP -> (Mod) P (NP)! ! ! AdvP -> (Mod) Adv (PP)
    AP -> (Mod) A (PP)! ! ! NP -> (D) (AP*) N (PP*)
    VP -> (AdvP) V (NP) (NP) (PP*) (AdvP*)
    ! ! ! ! ! PP! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! PP
    ! ! ! !! ! ! ! ! ! NP! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! NP
    ! ! ! !
    ! ! AP! ! ! ! ! AP! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! AP! ! AdvP
    D A N P D A N Aux V P D A N Adv
    Your fat cat on my red mat will jump under that dirty table soon
    Rules thus far:
    PP -> (Mod) P (NP)! ! ! AdvP -> (Mod) Adv (PP)
    AP -> (Mod) A (PP)! ! ! NP -> (D) (AP*) N (PP*)
    VP -> (AdvP) V (NP) (NP) (PP*) (AdvP*)
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! VP
    ! ! ! ! ! PP! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! PP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! NP! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! NP
    ! ! ! !
    ! ! AP! ! ! ! ! AP! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! AP! ! AdvP
    D A N P D A N Aux V P D A N Adv
    Your fat cat on my red mat will jump under that dirty table soon
    Rules thus far:
    PP -> (Mod) P (NP)! ! ! AdvP -> (Mod) Adv (PP)
    AP -> (Mod) A (PP)! ! ! NP -> (D) (AP*) N (PP*)
    VP -> (AdvP) V (NP) (NP) (PP*) (AdvP*)
    ! ! ! NP! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! VP
    ! ! ! ! ! PP! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! PP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! NP! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! NP
    ! ! ! !
    ! ! AP! ! ! ! ! AP! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! AP! ! AdvP
    D A N P D A N Aux V P D A N Adv
    Your fat cat on my red mat will jump under that dirty table soon
    Final Rule:! ! ! ! ! S -> NP (Aux) VP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! S
    ! ! ! NP! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! VP
    ! ! ! ! ! PP! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! PP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! NP! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! NP
    ! ! ! !
    ! ! AP! ! ! ! ! AP! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! AP! ! AdvP
    D A N P D A N Aux V P D A N Adv
    Your fat cat on my red mat will jump under that dirty table soon
    Structure allows us to speak technically about
    parts of a sentence:
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! VP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! PP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! NP
    ! ! ! ! ! V!! ! P D N
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
    ! ! ! ! read! from!the book
    nodes
    Structure allows us to speak technically about
    parts of a sentence:
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! VP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! PP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! NP
    ! ! ! ! ! V!! ! P D N
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
    ! ! ! ! read! from!the book
    branches
    Structure allows us to speak technically about
    parts of a sentence:
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! VP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! PP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! NP
    ! ! ! ! ! V!! ! P D N
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
    ! ! ! ! read! from!the book
    labels (for nodes)
    Structure allows us to speak technically about
    parts of a sentence:
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! VP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! PP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! NP
    ! ! ! ! ! V!! ! P D N
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
    ! ! ! ! read! from!the book
    constituent
    Structure allows us to speak technically about
    parts of a sentence:
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! VP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! PP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! NP
    ! ! ! ! ! V!! ! P D N
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
    ! ! ! ! read! from!the book
    constituent
    Structure allows us to speak technically about
    parts of a sentence:
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! VP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! PP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! NP
    ! ! ! ! ! V!! ! P D N
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
    ! ! ! ! read! from!the book
    constituent
    Some family relations:
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! NP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! D N
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! the book
    mother
    Some family relations:
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! NP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! D N
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! the book
    daughter
    Some family relations:
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! NP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! D N
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! the book
    daughter
    Some family relations:
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! NP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! D N
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! the book
    sisters
    REALLY IMPORTANT relation:
    ! ! ! ! !
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! VP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! PP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! NP
    ! ! ! ! ! V!! ! P D N
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
    ! ! ! ! read! from!the book
    dominance/dominate:
    VP dominates NP
    because only
    ‘downward’ branches
    connect VP to NP
    Define constituent in terms of dominance
    ! ! ! ! !
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! VP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! PP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! NP
    ! ! ! ! ! V!! ! P D N
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
    ! ! ! ! read! from!the book
    constituent:
    the set of nodes
    dominated by a single
    node
    So, constituents are represented in trees through
    nodes dominating other nodes.
    And constituents can be tested and verified
    through constituency tests.
    The last two examples on the practice sheet had
    the same tree structure.
    So we would predict that they would behave the
    same with respect to constituency tests...
    ! ! NP! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! NP
    ! ! ! ! ! PP! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! PP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! NP!! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! NP
    D N P N D N P N
    the student from England!! ! the student of Philosophy
    one substitution:
    Jack met the student from England,
    and I met the one from France.
    *Jack met the student of Philosophy,
    and I met the one of Greek.
    ! ! NP! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! *NP
    ! ! ! ! ! PP! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! PP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! NP!! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! NP
    D N P N D N P N
    the one from England!! ! the one of Philosophy
    one = N! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! *one = N
    Proposal:
    The structure of these two NPs is actually
    different, such that student is a constituent in one
    of them, but not the other.
    We will call this constituent N’
    (pronounced “N bar”)
    And we will say that one can only substitute for N’
    ! ! NP
    ! ! N’!
    ! ! ! N’! PP!
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! NP
    D N P N
    the student from England
    ! ! NP
    ! ! N’!
    ! ! ! N’!! PP!
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! NP
    D N P N
    the one from England
    ! ! NP
    ! ! N’
    ! ! ! ! ! PP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! NP
    D N P N
    the student of Philosophy
    ! ! *NP
    ! ! N’
    ! ! ! ! ! PP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! NP
    D N P N
    the one of Philosophy
    This solution offers a prediction:
    If “of philosophy” attaches directly to N to form N’
    and if “from England” attaches to N’ but not N
    then the order “from England of Philosophy”
    shouldn’t be possible (because “of Philosophy would
    then be attaching to N’, and should be replaceable
    by one)
    The test:
    I met the student of Philosophy from England
    *I met the student from England of Philosophy
    Our PS Rules need to be adjusted to allow for the
    N’ level:
    NP -> (D) N’
    N’ -> (AP) N’ (PP)
    N’ -> (AP) N (PP)
    Basically, we now have 3 levels rather than 2:
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! NP
    ! ! NP! vs.!! ! N’
    ! ! ! N!! ! ! ! ! N
    But do we see the need for 3 levels with other phrases?
    John will buy a book on Tuesday, and
    Sharon will do so on Friday
    buy a book on Tuesday is a VP
    But do so is replacing only buy a book.
    So buy a book must form some sort of constituent...
    Maybe V’?
    ! VP
    ! V’
    ! V’! ! ! ! P
    ! ! ! ! NP!! ! NP
    ! ! ! ! N’! ! ! N’
    ! V D N P N
    !!
    buy a book on Tuesday
    ! VP
    ! V’
    ! V’! ! ! ! P
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! NP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! N’
    ! ! ! ! ! P N
    !
    do so on Tuesday
    do so = V’
    Our PS Rules need to be adjusted to allow for the
    V’ level:
    VP -> (AdvP) V’! ! ! XP = NP, PP, or AdvP
    V’ -> V’ (XP)
    V’ -> V (XP)
    Again, we now have 3 levels rather than 2:
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! VP
    ! ! VP! vs.!! ! V’
    ! ! ! V!! ! ! ! ! V
    recursion!
    VP -> V’ (XP)
    V’ -> (Adv) V (XP)
    V’ -> V (XP)
    NP -> (D) N’
    N’ -> (AP) N’ (PP)
    N’ -> N (PP)
    AP -> (Mod) A’
    A’ -> A (PP)
    PP -> (Mod) P’
    P -> P (NP)
    AdvP -> (Mod) Adv’
    Adv’ -> Adv (PP)
    We can add BAR LEVELS
    to all of our phrases
    VP -> V’ (XP)
    V’ -> (Adv) V (XP)
    V’ -> V (XP)
    NP -> (D) N’
    N’ -> (AP) N’ (PP)
    N’ -> N (PP)
    AP -> (Mod) A’
    A’ -> A (PP)
    PP -> (Mod) P’
    P -> P (NP)
    AdvP -> (Mod) Adv’
    Adv’ -> Adv (PP)
    In fact, there is a pattern:
    XP -> (ZP) X’
    X’ -> (YP) X’ (YP)
    X’ -> X (WP)
    We call this X’-Theory
    Because all phrases have the same general phrase
    structure rules, we can define positions based on
    their X’ position:
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! XP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ZP!! X’
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! X’!! ! ! ! YP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! X! ! WP HEAD
    Because all phrases have the same general phrase
    structure rules, we can define positions based on
    their X’ position:
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! XP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ZP!! X’
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! X’!! ! ! ! YP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! X! ! WP Complement
    Because all phrases have the same general phrase
    structure rules, we can define positions based on
    their X’ position:
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! XP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ZP!! X’
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! X’!! ! ! ! YP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! X! ! WP
    Adjunct
    Because all phrases have the same general phrase
    structure rules, we can define positions based on
    their X’ position:
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! XP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ZP!! X’
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! X’!! ! ! ! YP
    ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! X! ! WP
    Specifier
    We can also define these positions using the
    relationship terminology we saw earlier:
    Head: V, N, A, P, Adv, etc (need a starting point)
    Complement: sister of a head, daughter of X’
    Adjunct: sister of X’, daughter of X’
    Specifier: sister of X’, daughter of XP
    practice bar levels

  • #2
    some courses in syntax

    <font color="#660000" size="5"><strong>أهلا وسهلا يا أغاواو حبذا لو تضع معلومات عنك في صفحة معلوماتك في الموقع التالي<br /></strong></font><a href="http://www.wataonline.net/site/userinfo.php?uid=4519"><font color="#660000" size="5"><strong>http://www.wataonline.net/site/userinfo.php?uid=4519</strong></font></a><br /><br /><br /><font color="#660000" size="5"><strong>ولا تنسى أن تضع في خانة التوقيع ما تحب مناداتك به<br /><br /><br />أحببت تنبيهك أنه هنا من المتعارف عليه نشر مصدر أي معلومة نعيد نشرها في الموقع نقلا من موقع آخر، فيا حبذا لو نشرت من أين نقلت المعلومات التي نشرتها أعلاه<br /><br />وفي المرة القادمة حبذا لو تضيف عليها شيء من عندك أي لو تضيف ترجمة لها على سبيل المثال<br /><br />ما رأيكم دام فضلكم؟<br /><img alt=" " src="http://www.wataonline.net/site/uploads/smil3dbd4e5e7563a.gif" /><img alt=" " src="http://www.wataonline.net/site/uploads/smil3dbd4e5e7563a.gif" /><img alt=" " src="http://www.wataonline.net/site/uploads/smil3dbd4e5e7563a.gif" /></strong></font>

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